segunda-feira, 31 dezembro 2018 18:24

Kinderszenen Op.15

Javier Plaza Pérez

Additional Info

  • Intérprete: Javier Plaza Pérez
  • Instrumento / Área: Piano
  • Instituição: Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa
  • Programa: Kinderszenen Op.15 | Robert Schumann
  • Orientador: Professor Jorge Moyano, Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa
  • Media:

Kinderszenen Op.15

Childhood was an ideal subject in every field of art, including music. The Romantics had a tendency to portray everything that was poetic and elusive, and Robert Schumann was highly influenced by this topic.  In 1833 Schumann wrote, “In every child is found a wondrous depth”.    

Kinderszenen Op.15, written in February 1838, was Schumann’s first composition linked to the theme of childhood.  What makes this piano cycle unique and different from some of his later piano works inspired by this topic, such as Für der Jugend Op.68, Ballscenes Op.109 or Drei Clavier-Sonaten für die Jugend Op.118, is the fact that Kinderszenen were not composed with a pedagogical objective.  The music was not intended for kids to play, but rather they were composed for adults.  In Schumann’s own words, Kinderszenen were “retrospective glances by a parent and for adults.” 

Schumann originally wrote 30 pieces for the work but selected 13 miniatures for its final version.  The discarded pieces were published years later in the collections Bunte Bläter Op.99 and Albumbläter Op.124. 

The composer´s earliest mention of Kinderszenen occurs in suggestive phrases written into his diary. On February 17, 1838, he noted: “in the evening a pair of small, lovely Kinderszenen were composed.” One week later: “the small thing ‘Träumerei’ is composed.”  The next day: “in the evening a Kinderszenen in F major [‘Am Camin’]. It seems very pretty to me.”

 In March 1838, Breitkopf & Härtel purchased the rights to the work and the piece was published in September 1839.  Following this usual practice, Schumann added the titles after he had composed the work, as a further guide to their interpretation.  Schumann chose the piece designations very eloquently, without however, constituting an actual program.  He intended the titles to be poetic ideas which provided ‘little hints’ for performing and understanding the music.  In fact, Schumann disliked the fact that anyone would consider his compositions to originate from premeditated programmatic means.

Although Kinderszenen did not have a dedicatee, Schumann, in his heart, wrote these pieces for Clara, the daughter of his piano teacher and mentor in Leipzig, Friedrich Wieck. Schumann´s love for Clara has been documented in the correspondence carried on by Robert and Clara almost daily throughout the time of their secret engagement, between 1837 and 1840.  Music was naturally one of the most important subjects. The Kinderszenen were often mentioned in their correspondence, tying mention of the pieces to a shared future, marital happiness and hopes for children.   In a letter to Clara on March 19, 1838, Schumann wrote:

I’ve discovered that nothing spurs the imagination more than anticipation and longing for something or other; that was the case in these last days when I was just waiting for your letter and filled books with compositions—strange things, mad things, even friendly things—you will really be surprised when you play them—I often feel that I’m going to burst because of all the music in me—and before I forget what I composed—it was like a musical response to what you once wrote me, that I sometimes seemed like a child to you—in short, it was just as if I were wearing a dress with flared sleeves, and I wrote about 30 droll little pieces, from which I’ve selected twelve, and I’ve called them Kinderszenen. You will enjoy them, but, of course, you will have to forget that you are a virtuoso—there are titles like Frightening - At the Fireside - Catch me if you can - Suppliant Child - The Knight of the Hobby-Horse - From Foreign Countries - Funny Story, and what not. In short, you’ll find everything, and at the same time they are as light as air.

The Kinderszenen were also among Clara’s favorites, on March 21 she writes: “They belong only to the two of us, don’t they? And they are always on my mind; they are so simple, warm, so quite like you; I can’t wait till tomorrow when I can play them again.”  In a letter dated April 15, 1838, Robert told Clara, “The Kinderszenen will probably be finished when you arrive; I like them very much; I impress people a lot when I play them, especially myself.”  On August 3, 1838 Schumann described to Clara the music of this cycle as “…light and gentle and happy like our future.”

The letters document Schumann´s increasing productivity and self-assurance as a composer.  After having composed two of his most relevant piano cycles in 1838 –Kinderszenen Op.15 and Kreisleriana Op.16- Schumann wrote in a letter dated August 3, 1838, “My music now seems to be so simply and wonderfully intricate in spite of all the simplicity, all the complications, so eloquent and from the heart.” Clara was thrilled with Schumann´s new concept of the poetic piano piece, or character piece: “My delight increases every time I play them.  There is so much in your music, and I understand your every thought and could lose myself in you and your music.”

The composer-music critic Carl Kossmaly (1812-1893) published a review of Schumann’s piano compositions in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung in 1844. He mentioned the Kinderszenen as follows:

The composer has succeeded in immersing himself so completely in certain moods, states, and memorable moments of the child’s world and in possessing it musically to such a degree that a thoughtful visitor must feel most intensely moved and vividly impressed by it. How is this unusual effect produced—how is the listener transported into such a perfect illusion? By the truth of the description, the naturalness of the coloration; because the tone poet has become utterly at one with his subject, has lived his way completely into or rather back to it, in a word: because he has most auspiciously achieved the gently naïve, genuinely childlike tone that issues forth so sweetly and so free of care.

Franz Liszt reviewed Schumann’s Kinderszenen in 1855:

And, to pause for a moment on one generally known work [Kinderszenen, Op. 15], how fortuitous the sequence of piece is! If during the tale of “Fremde Länder und Menschen” [no. 1] one imagines the obedient, blond children’s heads turned stiffly toward the narrator’s face, in the “Curiose Geschichte” [no. 2] their aroused fantasy is again directed to their surroundings, where the “Haschemann” [no. 3] then makes a transition to their tumbling and playing. But there is one child whose thoughts roam afar, to the impossible, who wishes to pile joy on joy, game on game. One answers this “Bittendes Kind” [no. 4] with a wise, soft reproach: “Glückes genug” [no. 5]! So the hardly developed souls must learn the difficult truth about earthly inadequacy, whose painful frailty is that we may not drink continually at the well of sentimentality, of the pleasures of the imagination. But this inner maxim is followed by a “Wichtige Begebenheit” [no. 6]. Here the young minds turn from their inhibiting dreams, from their distress caused by the slightest reproach, to the changing circumstances of reality. For some the principal charm again lies in that, stimulated to earnest contemplation, they indulge in precious “Träumereien” [no. 7], in which one can never abandon oneself better than “Am Kamin” [no. 8], by the crackling flame of the hearth. There again commence the wonderful tales full of marvelous adventures, such as the “Ritter vom Steckenpferd” [no. 9], or full of horrors and shivering shudders, when they become “Fast zu ernst” [no. 10] or take fright [“Fürchtenmachen,” no.11]. But now that most gentle, kind sprit, the sandman, descends upon the eyes of the “Einschlummerndes Kind” [no. 12] weary from all the confusing images. Then “Der Dichter” [no. 13] speaks to those at rest, blessing all the little events of the day and raising their significance with his contemplative mind, for they reflect symbolically the great events of mature life and often appear in the same sequence, stimulated by the same impressions. One can say that nearly all Schumann’s works conclude with this last quality: each time we imagine ourselves seized by the consecration of a poetic saying, we feel as if the poet, just him and no other, has turned to us and left us after greeting us.

Schumann seems not to have written the pieces with their marketability in mind, yet the Kinderszenen became Schumann’s first commercial success. The early popularity of Kinderszenen may have helped the composer realize how certain generic and stylistic features might appeal to broader audiences and increase sales. In its earliest publications and advertisements, the Kinderszenen were referred to as Leichte Stücke, (Easy Pieces).

By the 1890’s, Schumann’s popularity increased due to the anchor piece of the cycle, Träumerei, which had become the most arranged and published piece by any composer in German-speaking lands, inspiring paintings, poems, short stories, popular songs and even novels.  A variety of reasons contributed to the commercial success of Träumerei, including its relative technical ease and the popular reception of the whole cycle as intimate portrayals of Robert and Clara´s passionate love.


Interpretative Considerations

Kinderszenen is a great example of a cycle that is coherently organized as a whole.  Far from being limited to the recurrence of a unifying motif, Schumann conceives the work as an integral story whose individual episodes are linked to one another in their motivic interconnection, formal structure and harmonic arrangement.  There is a strong relationship between the music and the intention, distribution of tempi, and subtle mirror effects, both within one piece and on the scale of the whole score.  The cycle exhibits the idea of variation, both in the musical and literary sense, and presents narrative tactics, similar to the ones used in Carnaval Op.9 and Kreisleriana Op.16, in which pieces often end tonally ambiguously. 

The tonal center that frames the work is G Major (No.1, 11 and 13), contrasted by closely related tonalities: D Major (No.2, 4 and 5), A Major (No.6), F Major (No.7, 8), C Major (No.9) and three pieces in the minor keys of b minor (No.3), g-sharp minor (No.10) and e minor (No.12), achieving tonal cohesion (see Table 1).

 

Table 1. Kinderszenen Op.15, Key Scheme and Form

 

Schumann is very coherent when placing the individual pieces of the cycle in order.  He employs contrast and carefully alternates cheerful and lively pieces (Nos.2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11) with other more romantic, dreamy and melancholic ones (Nos.1, 4, 7, 10, 12 and 13), reminding us of his predilection for character change and dualism.

The composer also strategically placed the two most poignant pieces of the set, Träumerei (Dreaming, No.7) and Der Dichter spricht (The poet speaks, No.13), in the structurally important positions of middle and end of the cycle. The well-known Träumerei serves as a central slow movement and Der Dichter spricht functions as a postlude.  Moreover, he intended Bittendes Kind and Glückes genug (No.4, 5) as well as Kind im Einschlummern and Der Dichter spricht (No.12, 13) to be inseparable pairs.

The cycle´s musical texture resembles human speech more closely than music before or after him. The use of the middle register of the keyboard resembles the limited range of the human voice.

Schumann´s indications of dynamic markings require a soft, delicate piano touch.  All of the pieces are marked piano or pianissimo, except for Wichtige Begebenheit (An important event, No.6) and a small section of Fürchtenmarchen (Frightening, No.11) which are marked fortissimo or forte. Therefore, the cycle requires attentive listening and deep concentration in order to sense the evocative atmospheres.

An important linking device that produces overall consistency and unity in Kinderszenen Op.15 is the motivic inter-relationship in which the opening phrase of the first piece of the cycle, Von fremden Ländern und Menschen (About foreign lands and people), provides a recurring thematic link for nearly all of the following pieces.  The motive of the rising sixth and especially the four-note falling figure which opens Von fremden Ländern und Menschen reappears at original pitches in pieces Nos. 2, 4, and 11 (see Ex. 1, 2, 3, 4) and at transposed pitches in Nos. 6, 7, and 9 (see Ex. 5, 6, 7).

 

Ex. 1. Von fremden Ländern und menschen, Op. 15, No. 1, mm 1-4

 

Ex. 2. Kuriose Geschichte, Op. 15, No. 2, mm 1-4

 

Ex. 3. Bittendes Kind, Op. 15, No. 4, mm 1-3

 

Ex. 4. Fürchtenmachen, Op. 15, No. 11, mm 1-8

 

Ex. 5. Wichtige Begebenheit, Op. 15, No. 6, mm 1-4

 

Ex. 6. Träumerei, Op. 15, No. 7, mm 1-4

 

Ex. 7. Ritter vom Steckenpferd, Op. 15, No. 9, mm 1-8

 


No. 1, Von fremden Ländern und Menschen (About foreign lands and people) in G Major

The cycle begins with a lyrical piece (see Ex. 8) that could suggest the amusement of a child who is fantasizing about exploring the world and discovering new, unknown places and people. This first mono-thematic miniature is in the key of G Major, the main tonal-center of the cycle.  It is designed in an A-BA form, with the repetition of each section. The short five-note melodic motif, only two bars in length, is exposed twice before a cantabile descending line (4 bars long), cadences in the tonic. The right-hand melody is accompanied by soft triplets that are played split between the two hands, and a bass quaver line creates a countermelody. The 6-bar B section switches the precedent motivic material to the bass line, while the right presents a descending motif in thirds accompanied by the same arpeggiated triplets in the middle voice.  After a ritardando, the music is sustained momentarily with a fermata that falls back into the A section.

The interpreter must search for contrast in the music, highlighting different lines and slightly varying the agogics in the music. When the ritardando and the fermata appear for the first time at the end of section B, the music should not slow down excessively, so as to make it more obvious in its second statement.

Ex. 8. Von fremden Ländern und Menschen, No.1, in G Major

 


No. 2, Kuriose Geschichte (A curious story), in D Major

This animated piece in ternary meter is built on an A-BA' form in which the first section (A) is constructed out of two four-bar semi-phrases. After the repetition of the A section, the short B section serves as a modulatory transition back into the recurring A' theme which is slightly varied.  This rhythmic miniature uses chordal writing in the A section, and in the B section, a four-bar legato melodic line is doubled in both hands.  The music begins with a chord in the up-beat of the third pulse, creating a bouncy and forward driven feeling.  The gesture of the hands must remain close to the keyboard, minimizing unnecessary movements that could create false accents and slow the tempo down (see Ex.9).

Ex. 9. Kuriose Geschichte, No. 2, in D Major

 


No. 3, Hasche-Mann (Blind Man´s Bluff), in b minor

This piece is structured again in an A-BA form (see Ex. 10).  Section A, 8 bars in length, repeats its four-bar opening phrase in b minor.  The following BA section, 12 bars in length, is repeated, and presents two four-bar phases (B) in the keys of G Major and C Major (B), followed by the return of the opening theme in b minor (A), this time without its repetition.  Although the piece is written in minor mode, the rhythmic drive, the light staccato semi-quaver articulation and the use of sf-p and accents, provide a dynamic and playful feel to the music.

Ex. 10. Hasche-Mann, No.3, in b minor

 


No. 4, Bittendes Kind (Pleading child), in D Major

The structure of the fourth selection is in ABCA form (see Ex.11) and is written in four short phrases, each four-bars long, made out of a two-bar melody and its echo in pianissimo.  The ‘parlando’ aspect of Schumann´s music can be particularly observed in this innocent miniature, where you can hear the child begging his mother for something. The music starts and stops throughout the piece, showing Schumann´s ability to create ideas with ‘open ends’, which consist of phrases that are as suitable for the opening as for the closing of a piece.  The child´s pleas are left unresolved, without an answer.  The music concludes mysteriously in the dominant A7 chord.

Ex. 11. Bittendes Kind, Op. 15, No. 4

 


No. 5, Glückes genug (Perfect happiness), in D Major

    This piece is in repeated AAB form, Da Capo to the end.  The theme of the music (see Ex.12) suggests naïve contentedness. The up-beat semiquaver must start the music rhythmically on time, without using much rubato. The alternating dialogue between soprano and bass lines creates a flowing texture, reflecting Schumann’s inherent use of counterpoint. The melody´s contour requires an expressive legato touch and natural flow to convey a child´s complete happiness, as suggested by the title. The countermelodies should be emphasized when a phrase or a motive is repeated.  Although the cheerful melody must move forward to its structural axis, the music should not sound rushed, allowing space to breath in-between the phrases.

Ex. 12. Glückes genug, Op. 15, No. 5

 


No. 6, Wichtige Begebenheit (An important event), in A Major

This solemn miniature is rich in texture and employs for the first time in the cycle a forte and fortissimo dynamic level.  It is structured in ABA form.  The A section is constructed out of two semi-phrases of four-bars each, the first one forte and second one, echoed an octave lower, in mf.  The melody and bass counter melody lines practically employ the same rhythm and are played in blocks. While the right hand plays full chords, the left hand always plays octaves, creating a dense, quasi orchestral texture.  The B section is written in fortissimo and is repeated, presenting the melodic line in octaves in the left hand, while the right hand plays four-note chords.

Ex. 13. Wichtige Begebenheit, No.6, in A Major

 


No. 7, Traümerei (Dreaming), in F Major

This master piece is written in A-BA' form (see Ex. 14).  The three symmetrical phrases that complete the miniature are 8 bars in length (24-bars total), each divided into two four-bar semi-phrases, with similar rhythm and melodic contour. The main motif (A) is melodically and harmonically simple, using the tonic, subdominant and dominant chords for its development and exhibiting a rich polyphonic writing that allows the interpreter to present the musical texture in varied ways.

 Section A is repeated and followed by the more contrapuntal B section, presenting the maximum level of expressive tension by employing faster harmonic rhythm and short modulations to minor keys.  After the last appearance of the main melody, the music stops in a sustained fermata over a secondary dominant G9, followed by a descending legato-line that resolves the music peacefully in the tonic.  At the end of each of the three phrases Schumann writes a ritardando that should not be over-exaggerated, so to broaden and emphasize the last appearance of the theme.  Observe how Schumann gives continuity to the cycle by reusing the opening bar of the Traümerei in the following piece Am Kamin No. 8 also in F Major (see Ex. 14 and 15).

Ex. 14. Traümerei, No.7, in F Major

 


No. 8, Am Kamin (At the fireside), in F Major

This playful miniature is linked to the precedent by maintaining the same tonality of F Major and by quoting the same opening bar used in Traümerai, this time one octave higher.  The light legato melody is accompanied by syncopated chords in the left hand which should be played softly, so not to disturb the flow of the story-line.  It has an A-BA' form, with a repeat of the second section, and a conclusive Coda at the end (see Ex. 15).

Ex. 15. Am Kamin, No. 8, in F Major

 


No. 9, Ritter vom Steckenpferd (Knight of the hobby-horse), in C Major

This is possibly the most animated and joyful piece of the set, conveying a child riding on a wooden horse. Its 24-bars repeated A-BA' form (see Ex. 16) calls for melodic contrast between the two hands.   This syncopated and rhythmic miniature in ternary meter repeatedly accentuates the third beat of the bar in the right hand, reaching an ff dynamic level in the last appearance of the main theme (A').

Ex. 16. Ritter vom Steckenpferd, No. 9, in C Major

 


No. 10, Fast zu Ernst (Almost too serious), in g-sharp minor

This melancholic piece is written in the key of g-sharp minor emphasizing the seriousness of its character. The restlessness in the music is manifested by the choice of a complex tonality and by Schumann´s tendency to create ideas with ‘open ends’. It has an ABCDABCA1 formal structure (see Ex. 17), based on the slight melodic variations of the main syncopated motif. The different appearances of the main idea are separated by fermatas that stop the continuity and fluidity of the child´s speech. The interpretation requires good tonal balance between the melody and bass accompaniment. The melodic phrasing resembles the child´s own words.

Ex. 17. Fast zu Ernst<\em>, No. 10, in g-sharp minor

 


No. 11, Fürchtenmachen (Frightening), in G Major

This piece is structured as a mini-Rondo (see Ex. 18).  The main motif A, written in pianissimo, suggests a child’s fear of the night or when listening to a frightening bedtime story. A first 4-bar statement with a short portato repeated note introduction and an arched descending line in the right hand, evoke a child’s fear of the dark.  A second 4-bar phrase, written with chordal texture, follows as a statement of the child´s assurance, as if the fear had disappeared.  This recurring theme alternates with short contrasting episodes.  Episode B, also in pianissimo, is at a faster pulse (Schneller) evoking the presence of a scary thought, as if the Boogieman were about to appear. It is written as a repeated 4-bar phrase with the melody line in the left hand, accompanied by a syncopated right hand in staccato semi-quavers.  Episode C and D are 4-bars each.  Episode C is in G Major and has a forte dynamic level (second time this occurs in the cycle), a rich texture and syncopated sf chords in both hands. It is followed by a contrasting modulatory statement in piano which prepares the return to the A theme with a ritardando. Episode B is repeated again, and finally, for the fifth and last time the main motif concludes the piece.  The story is over, and the child is ready to sleep.

Ex. 18. Fürchtenmachen, No.11, in G Major

 


No. 12, Kind im Einschlummern (Child falling asleep), in e minor

This charming lullaby gives a loving portrayal of a sleeping child which is created by the sustained opening mood and by the appealing harmonies. The upward leap of the sixth (reinforced with an accent) recalls, once again, the main opening motif from the first piece of the cycle Von fremden Ländern und Menschen. This miniature in e minor is 32 bars in length, symmetrically distributed in four eight-bar phrases, ABCA.   The harmonic progression moves from the original e minor to the parallel E Major in the B section, followed by a modulatory C section, which leads back, after a ritardando, to the minor tonic of the theme   The music flow evokes the child´s dreams as he gets into a deeper sleep, resolving the piece in a sustained 6/4 subdominant minor chord with a fermata (see Ex. 19).

Ex. 19. Kind im Einschlummern, Op. 15, No. 12

 


No. 13, Der Dichter spricht (The Poet Speaks), in G Major

By this time, the childhood scenes have finished and the poet, Robert Schumann, concludes the cycle with an introspective and beautiful epilogue. Why a poet, instead of a composer?  It is Schumann, the poet, who speaks about childhood, his memories, and his hopes as he thinks of Clara.

The piece begins with a solemn chorale eight-bars long, followed by an eloquent and declamatory recitativo in which Schumann introduces his `most personal phrase´ consisting of a turn and a sigh of longing and resignation, expressed with a rubato treatment (see Ex. 20). Schumann means to speak in the first person singular (Vázsonvi, 1974).

Ex. 20. Der Dichter spricht, Op. 15, No. 13

 

This personal phrase was quoted by the composer in other works such as the fourth piece of Kreisleriana Op.16 and the `epilogue´ of Arabesque Op.18 (see Ex. 21a and b).

Ex. 21a. Kreisleriana,Op. 16, No. 4, Schumann’s personal phrase

 

Ex. 21b. Arabesque, Op. 18. Schumann’s personal phrase

 

Kinderszenen Op.15 is one of the most played and praised piano cycles by Robert Schumann.  It occupies a special place in the whole context of romantic piano music, remaining as one of Schumann´s most representative compositions.  Schumann combines poetry and music in a very sophisticated manner, like no other composer had done before. The composer gives an adult conception of childhood memories which call for the utmost in musicianship to perform them adequately.

This piano cycle has stimulated many composers to write music inspired by children such as Bizet, Debussy, Ravel, Tchaikovsky, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Mussorgsky, Bartok, Granados, and Mompou.


References

Boetticher, W. (1942). Robert Schumann in seinem Schriften und Briefen. Berlin: Bernhard Hahnefeld Verlag.

Brown, T. (1968). The Aesthetics of Schumann. NewYork, NY: Philosophical Library Inc.

Chissell, J. (1948). Schumann. London: J.M. Dent. 110.

Daverio, J. (1997). Robert Schumann. Herald of a new poetic age. New York: Oxford University Press.  

da Palma Pereira, T., Lourenço, S. & Ferreira-Lopes, P. (2014). Subjective appropriation of musical form in Schumann’s Carnaval, op. 9. CITAR Journal, 6(2), 7-14.

Grout, D. G. & Palisca, C. V. (1988). A History of Western Music. New York, NY.: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Hanslick, E. (1993). Sämtliche Schriften Historisch-kritische Ausgabe Bd. 1: Aufsätze und Rezensionen 1844-1848. Dietmar Strauß (Ed.). Wien: Böhlau. 54-5.

Henriques, M. G. (2014). The (Well) Informed Piano: Artistry and Knowledge. University Press of America, Inc.

Jensen, E. F. (2001). Schumann. Oxford University Press.

Kennedy, J. & Kennedy, M. (2013). The Oxford Dictionary of Music. Oxford University Press.

Kossmaly, C. (1844). On Robert Schumann’s Piano Composition. In R. L. Todd (Ed.), Schumann and His World. Princeton University Press.

Li, W. Y. C. (2009). Narrative and representation in Robert Schumann’s WaldszenenOp.82. (Doctoral Dissertation). University of British Columbia.

Liszt, F. (1994). Robert Schumann ‘1855’. In R. L. Todd (Ed.), Schumann and His World (pp. 338-361). Princeton University Press. 

Mach, E. (1988). Great Contemporary Pianists Speak for Themselves. Vol II.  New York. Dover Publications Inc.

Reiman, E. (1999). Schumann’s Piano Cycles and the Novels of Jean Paul. Rochester: University of Rochester Press.

Sadie, S. & Grove, G. (1980). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London Macmillan Publishers.

Sams, E. (1972). Schumann and the Tonal Analogue. In A. Walker (Ed.) Robert Schumann: The Man and his Music (pp.390-405). London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Sheadel, M. J. (1993). Schumann’s Waldszenen: From analysis to performance. (Doctoral Dissertation). Temple University.

Schlotel, B. (1972). Schumann & the Metronome. In A. Walker (Ed.)  Robert Schumann: The Man and his Music (pp.93-108). London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Schumann, C. (1888). Early Letters of Robert Schumann. M. Herbert (Trans.). London: George Bell and Sons.

Schumann, C. & Schumann, R. (1987). Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe, Vol.1: 1831 -1838. E. Weissweiler et al. (Eds.). Basel:  Stromfeld/Roter Stern. 331.

Schumann, R. (1971). Tagebücher, vol. I: 1827-38. G. Eismann (Ed.). Leipzig.

Schumann, R. & Schumann, C. (1886). Jugendbriefe. Harvard University: Breitkopf und Härtel.

Scott, M. W. (2012). Robert Schumann and His Magic Circle - Is it Synesthesia or Ekphrasis? (Doctoral Dissertation).  University of Miami.

Solomon, Y. (1972). Solo Piano Music (I). The Sonatas and Fantasie in Schumann's Music. In A. Walker (Ed.)  Robert Schumann: The Man and his Music (pp.41-67). London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Stefaniak, A. (2012). Poetic Virtuosity: Robert Schumann as a Critic and Composer of Virtuoso Instrumental Music (Doctoral Dissertation). University of Rochester.

Vázsonyi, B. (1972). Schumann's Piano Cycles.  In A. Walker (Ed.) Robert Schumann: The Man and his Music (pp.47-80). London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Weingarten, J. (1972). Interpreting Schumann’s Piano Music. In A. Walker (Ed.) Robert Schumann: The Man and his Music (pp.93-108). London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Weissweiler, E. (1994). The Complete Correspondence of Clara and Robert Schumann, Critical Edition. (F. Hildergard & R. L. Crawford, Trans.). New York: Peter Lang.

Xu, D. (2006). Themes of Childhood: A Study of Robert Schumann’s Piano Music for Children (Doctoral Dissertation) University of Cincinnati. 


Bibliography

Abraham, G. (1990). Romanticism (1830-1890). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bingham, R. (1993). The Song Cycle in German-Speaking Countries 1790-1840: Approaches to a Changing Genre. (Doctoral Dissertation). Cornell University.

Brion, M. (1956). Schumann and the Romantic Age. MacMillan Co.

Brown, T. A. (1965). The Aesthetics of Robert Schumann in Relation to His Piano Music 1830-1840.  University of Wisconsin.

Cooper, M. (1952). The Songs. In G. Abraham (Ed.). Schumann: A Symposium. London: Oxford University Press.

Deahl, L. (2001). Robert Schumann's ‘Album for the Young’ and the Coming of Age of Nineteenth-Century Piano Pedagogy. College Music Symposium. Vol. 41. 25-42.

Daverio, J. (1993). Nineteenth-Century Music and the German Romantic Ideology. Schirmer Books.

Daverio, J. (1990). Reading Schumann by way of Jean Paul and his Contemporaries. College Music Symposium 30/2. 28–45.

Daverio, J. (2002, Summer). Review of Schumann's Eichendorff Liederkreis and the Genre of the Romantic Cycle by David Ferris. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 26, No.1, 100-110.

Daverio, J. (1993). Schumann's Systems of Musical Fragments and Witz. In Nineteenth-Century Music and the German Romantic Ideology (pp.49-88). New York: Schirmer Books.

Ferris, D. (2000). Schumann’s Eichendorff Liederkreis and the Genre of the Romantic Cycle. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fink, G. W. (1833, September 11). Thème sur le nom ‘Abegg’ varié pour le Pianoforte. AmZ 35, no. 37. p.615.

Finson, J. W. (2007). Robert Schumann: the book of songs. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Finson, J. W. (1990, Spring). Schumann's Mature Style and the “Album of Songs for the Young”. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 8, No. 2. 227-250.

Fischer-Dieskau, D. (1988). Robert Schumann Words and Music: The Vocal Compositions. (R. G. Pauly, Trans.). Portland: Amadeus Press.

Fowler, A. (1990). Robert Schumann and the “real” Davidsbündler. College Music Symposium, Vol. 30/2. 19–27.

Geck, M. (2013). Robert Schumann: The Life and Work of a Romantic Composer. University of Chicago Press.

Goerne, M. & Johnson, G. (1997). Sleeve-notes to CD. The Hyperion Schubert Edition, Vol. 30. London: Hyperion.

Goldberg, C. (1994). Going into the Woods: Space, Time, and Movement in Schumann's Waldszenen op. 82. International Journal of Musicology 3: 151–174.

Gulda, P. (1992). Sleeve-notes to CD. Schumann, R.: Waldszenen. USA: Naxos.

Hanslick, E. (1963). Music Criticisms, 1846-99. Baltimore: Penguin Books.

Herttrich, E. (2001). Preface. In E. Herttrich (Ed.) Waldszenen, Op.82 (Urtext). München: G. Henle Verlag.

Jensen, E. F. (1984, Winter). A New Manuscript of Robert Schumann's Waldszenen Op. 82’. The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 3, No. 1. 69-89.

Jensen, E. F. (1988). Explicating Jean Paul: Robert Schumann’s Program for Papillons, Op.2. 19th-Century Music, 22. 127–44.

Jensen, E. F. (2001). Schumann - Master Musicians Series. New York: Oxford University Press.

Johnson, M. E. (1970). Characteristic Metrical Anomalies in the Instrumental Music of Robert Schumann: A study of Rhythmic Intention. (Doctoral Dissertation). The University of Oklahoma. 

Kaminsky, P. (1989, August). Principles of Formal Structure in Schumann's Early Piano Cycles. Music Theory Spectrum, Vol. 11, No. 2.  207-225.

Kang, J. Y. (2011).  Robert Schumann's notion of the cycle in Lieder Und Gesange Aus Goethes Wilhelm Meister, Op. 98a and Waldszenen, Op.82. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). City Universtiy London.

Krebs, H. (1999). Fantasy Pieces: Metrical Dissonance in the Music of Robert Schumann. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lester, J. (1995, Spring). Robert Schumann and Sonata Forms. 19th-Century Music. Vol. 18, No. 3. University of California Press. 189-210.

McCorkle, M. L. (2003). Robert Schumann Thematisch-Bibliographisches Werkverzeichnis. München: Henle Verlag.

Miller, M. C. (2007). Eusebius and Florestan: The Duality of Robert Schumann, Composer and Music Critic. (Doctoral Dissertation). Emporia State University.

Murphy, M. (2008). B. Perrey (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Schumann (2007).  Journal of the Society for Musicology in Ireland3, 145-150. Retrieved from https://www.musicologyireland.com/jsmi/index.php/journal/article/view/39

Newcomb, A. (1987). Schumann and Late Eighteenth-century Narrative Strategies. 19th-Century Music. Vol. 11. 164–74.

Newcomb, A. (1990). Schumann and the Marketplace: from Butterflies to Hausmusik. In R. L. Todd (Ed.). Nineteenth-century Piano Music. (pp.258–315). New York: Schrimer Books.

Ostwald, P. F. (1980, Summer). Florestan, Eusebius, Clara and Schumann's Right Hand. 19th Century Music. Vol. 4, No. 1. 17-31.

Ostwald, P. F. (1985). Schumann: The Inner Voices of a Musical Genius. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Ostwald, P. F. (1985). Schumann: Music and Madness. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd.

Polansky, R. (1978). The Rejected Kinderszenen of Robert Schumann’s Opus 15. Journal of the American Musicological Society, 31. 126-31.

Rapport, M. (2009). 1848: Year of Revolution. New York: Basic Books.

Reich, N. B. (1985). Clara Schumann: The Artist and the Woman. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Réti, R. (1961). Schumann's Kinderszenen: A "Theme with Variations." In The Thematic Process in Music (pp.31-55). London: Faber & Faber.

Reynolds, C. A. (2003). Motives for Allusion: Context and Content in Nineteenth-century Music. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Rosen, C. (1995). The Romantic Generation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Schauffler, R. H. (1945). Florestan: The life and work of Robert Schumann. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.

Schumann, R. (1880). Music and musicians. Essays and criticisms by Robert Schumann. F. Raymond Ritter (Ed. & Trans.). New York. Edward Schuberth Co.

Schumann, R.  (1946). On Music and Musicians. K. Wolff (Ed.). NewYork: Pantheon.

Schumann, R. (1979). The Letters of Robert Schumann. K. Storck (Ed.). London: Arno Press, Inc.

Schumann, R. (1882).  Robert Schumanns Werke Serie XIII: Für eine Singstimme, mit Begleitung desPianoforte. C. Schumann (Ed.). Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel.

Siegel, L. (1978). Caspar David Friedrich and the age of German Romanticism. Boston: Branden Press Publishers.

Tadday, U. (2007). Life and Literature, Poetry and Philosophy: Robert Schumann’s Aesthetics of Music. In B. Perrey (Ed.). Companion to Schumann (pp.38–47). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, H. L. (1959). The Use of Variation technique in the pianoforte works of Robert Schumann. Boston University.

Taylor, R. (1982). Robert Schumann: His Life and Work. London: Universe Publishers.

Todd, R. L. (Ed.) (1994). Schumann and His World. Princeton Legacy Library. Princeton University Press.

Tunbridge, L. (2007). Piano works II: Afterimages.  In B. Perrey (Ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Schumann. (pp.86-101). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Turchin, B. P. (1981). Robert Schumann’s Song Cycles in the Context of the Early Nineteenth-Century Liederkreis. (Doctoral Dissertation). Columbia University.

Turchin, B. P. (1985, Spring). Schumann's Song Cycles: The Cycle within the Song. 19th-Century Music, Vol. 8, No. 3. 231-244.

Walker, A. (1972). Schumann: The Man and his Music. London: Barrie & Jenkins.

Wasielewski, W. J. (1880/digitalized 2007). Robert Schumann: Eine Biographie. University of California.

Wolf, K. (Ed.) (1964). On Music and Musicians: Robert Schumann. McGraw-Hill.

Worthen, J. (2007). Robert Schumann: Life and Death of a Musician. Yale University Press.

 

Javier Plaza nasceu em Cáceres e iniciou os seus estudos musicais no Conservatório Profissional de Música "Hermanos Berzosa", com Elvira Ortega e Joaquín Parra. Paralelamente, completa a sua formação em Madrid no estúdio de Rosa Mª Kucharski, tendo também inúmeras aulas de aperfeiçoamento com ilustres pianistas como Carlos Cebro, Fernando Puchol e Esteban Sánchez. Aos quinze anos, obtém o primeiro prémio no Concurso Jóvenes Intérpretes de Música Clásica de Extremadura, galardão que o levará a atuar como solista em diversas salas da região.

Em 1990, recebeu uma bolsa da Fundação Loewe / Hazen para estudar em Lyon com a pianista alemã Edith Picht-Axenfeld. Nesse mesmo ano, atua em Madrid para a estação de televisão Telecinco num programa ao vivo dedicado a jovens promessas (Hablando se entiende la gente). Em 1992, após concluir os estudos profissionais com classificação máxima, mudou-se para os Estados Unidos para continuar a sua formação artística como bolseiro da University of Northern Iowa, obtendo uma Licenciatura em Interpretação de Piano (B.M.), cum laudem, em 1996. Durante este período, estudou com Joyce Gault, Howard Aibel e Robert Washut, participando também em masterclasses com Kevin Kenner e Barry Snyder. Entre 1992 e 1994, alcançou os primeiros prémios em vários concursos de piano: Terrace Hill Piano Competition, Des Moines (final transmitida em direto pela Iowa Public Television); IMTA Piano Competition, Iowa City; Fort Dodge Young Artist Soloist Competition, estreando-se a solo com a Orquestra Sinfónica de Fort Dodge.

Em 1997, recebeu uma bolsa de estudos da Universidade do Texas (San Antonio, TX) para realizar os seus estudos de pós-graduação com Elisenda Fabregas. Em 1998, Javier regressou à Extremadura e iniciou a sua carreira docente no Conservatório Profissional de Música "Esteban Sánchez" de Mérida, onde é atualmente professor de piano. Lecionou também as disciplinas de música de câmara e acompanhamento, tendo desempenhado durante quatro anos o cargo de coordenador. Em 2004, obteve o mestrado em Pedagogia pela Universidade Complutense de Madrid.

O seu interesse pela música contemporânea levou-o a integrar vários projetos artísticos. É membro da Compañía de Arte Nuevo CANAC, com quem estreou no XX Festival Ibérico de Badajoz o drama musical "La cena está servida", do compositor José Ignacio de la Peña. Em 2005, estreou em Badajoz, juntamente com a soprano Celia Sánchez del Río, várias canções para soprano e piano de De la Peña, Rebeca Santiago, Alicia Terrón e Vasco Pereira, apresentando também a sonatina para violoncelo e piano de Enrique Muñoz, juntamente com o violoncelista. José Miguel Sancho. Participou também na gravação de bandas sonoras para várias companhias de teatro, como Rodetacón Teatro (Bajo Llave) e Suripanta (Madre Coraje).

Em 2010, fundou o Allegro Piano Dúo, juntamente com o pianista andaluz Daniel Barroso, interpretando um vasto repertório para piano a quatro mãos.

Nos últimos anos, Javier ampliou a sua formação frequentando cursos de interpretação de piano ministrados por músicos internacionais de renome, como Paul Badura-Skoda, Eldar Nebolsin, Cordelia Höfer, Imogen Cooper, Tamas Vesmas, Luca Chiantore, Guillermo González, Emmanuel Ferrer-Laloë, Massimo Gon, etc.

Em 2018, Javier obteve o Mestrado em Piano (Master in Music) na Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa, sob a direção do lendário pianista e pedagogo português Jorge Moyano, tendo também aulas com os pianistas Miguel Henriques e Nicholas McNair.

          Logo IDICA horizontal 500px         

Todos os direitos reservados - Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa - CESEM - Pólo IPL | 2018

Search